1 - Organization

i. Make sure all the sentences are linked well and coherent.
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ii. You may use connectives (such as in addition, however).
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iii. Use transitions to signal the different parts of your report (such as ‘to sum up’ signals the conclusion).
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2 - Content

i. Avoid vague content. Example: 'The number of users using internet to search people increases going through the age groups meanwhile the rate of activity for downloading decreases through the age groups.'
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ii. Avoid irrelevant content. Example: 'This current situation explains the pattern shown in the table. However, don’t judge the book by its cover. The pattern shown does not conclude the pattern of the Internet use around the world. For example, at the age of 52, my mother loves to play online games more than I do. In fact, she is the most frequent Internet user at home.'
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iii. Make sure the information you report is accurate.
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iv. Avoid explanations since in this part of the report readers expect only descriptions of results rather than discussions which often come later. Example: 'Although 70 year-olds using the internet for gaming is quite surprising, it is probably due to the orderly not wanting to clean up the mess after a game at the old folk's home.'
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3 - Vocabulary

i. Avoid repeating the same vocabulary or expressions. Example: Use ‘indicate’ instead of over-using ‘show’; or write ‘half’ or ’10 out of 20’ to avoid repeating ‘50%’.
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ii. Some technical terms do not have synonyms. Readers of academic reports expect you to use the key terms consistently. Examples: Using ‘anxiety’ interchangeably with ‘apprehension’ may confuse some readers. The word ‘informant’ is appropriate for participants in interviews while ‘respondent’ is often used for the participants in a survey.
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iii. Avoid informal words. Example: Words like ‘well’ or ‘actually’ are appropriate for informal contexts. Similarly, avoid clichés (such as ‘odd-one-out) or overused proverbs (like ‘killing two birds with one stone’)
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iv. Avoid emotive or judgemental words, in order to create an objective tone. Example of an expression to avoid: 'I dislike this appalling trend.'
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v. Use the exact term. Example: ‘fluctuate’ for ‘going up and down’ ‘downloading files’ for ‘downloading things’
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4 - Conventions

i. Use impersonal language to create an objective tone. Example: 'It can be argued that …', 'instead of I think that …'
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ii. Revise repeated structures. One way is to use a different grammatical subject in each sentences. Example of repeated structures: 'The table shows that fewer students visited the library at noon in comparison with mornings. The table shows a rise in the number of visitors in the evening. The table shows the number…' Example improved: 'The library was used by fewer students at noon in comparison with mornings. In evenings, they visited the library more frequently. The table shows the number…'
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iii. Avoid starting sentences with numbers. Instead, you can begin a sentence with an adverb (such as briefly, obviously, unexpectedly).
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iv. Use formal structures by avoiding contractions (such as don’t).
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v. Avoid starting your report by asking questions. Example to avoid: 'What is the relationship between X and Y?' Example improved: 'The first research question addressed the relationship between X and Y.'
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vi. Avoid the ampersand, unless you are citing others in brackets.
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vii. Be consistent with capitalizing, italicizing, or bold-facing words.
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5 - Language errors

i. Watch out for subject-verb disagreement: 'Internet activities varies' (incorrect), 'Internet activities vary' (correct)
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ii. Use plural forms correctly: 'different age' (incorrect), 'different ages' (correct)
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iii. Use the tenses correctly: 'The table had shown' (incorrect), 'The table shows' (correct)
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iv. Use prepositions correctly: 'searching information' (incorrect), 'searching for information' (correct)
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v. Avoid fragments: 'What is evident in the table.' (incorrect), 'What is evident in the table is that …' (correct)
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vi. Use connectors correctly: 'Adults did not have much interest for downloading and it is so obvious that only 6% of them like to download. Contrary, the teens are so in love with downloading that make them 56%..' (incorrect), '... On the contrary, the teens are so in love with downloading that it makes them the group with the highest frequency of downloading (56%).'
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vii. Use comparatives correctly: 'The least number of people to play online games are from group of teens.' (incorrect), 'The lowest number of people to play online games are from group of teens', [or better] 'People to play online games the least frequently are the teens.' (correct)
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viii. Proofread for misspellings (e.g., ‘form’ for ‘from’).
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